The economy was formally directed by central planning, carried out by Gosplan and organized in five-year plans. In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization. 47 In 1939, the Soviet Union made a dramatic shift toward Nazi Germany. Archived from the original on Retrieved Ruiz, Rebecca. The Soviet Union suffered greatly in the war, losing around 27 million people. "State and Society Under Stalin: Constitutions and Elections in the 1930s". Archived from the original on Retrieved Wilson, Wayne (Ph. With the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and with East Germany and West Germany pursuing unification, the Iron Curtain between the West and Soviet-controlled regions came down. Kaser, Comecon: Integration problems of the planned economies (Oxford University Press, 1967). 183 An analysis of the official data from the late 1980s showed that after worsening in the late-1970s and the early 1980s, adult mortality began to improve again.