283 Antiquity and Roman Empire Main articles: Early centers of Christianity, Pentarchy, and List of Christian heresies Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas. Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72 of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the church's teaching on birth control. 118 In Purgatory, the soul suffers, and is purged and perfected. Rome and the Byzantine East would delve into further conflict during the Photian schism of the 860s, when Photius criticised the Latin west of adding of the filioque clause after being excommunicated by Nicholas. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Principles and Norms on Ecumenism 132". 394 395 While welcomed by some, it was criticised by some for perceived ambiguity, provoking controversies among individual representatives of differing perspectives. Travel and Living Abroad, 27 February 2012. 43 Canon law Main article: Canon law of the Catholic Church See also: Catholic Church Liturgy The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities to regulate the church's external organisation and. 275 276 The Catholic Church teaches that the college of bishops, led by the Bishop of Rome are the successors to the Apostles.